Optimizable Pipelines#

Some algorithms can actively be “trained” to improve their performance or adapt it to a certain dataset. In tpcp we use the term “optimize” instead of “train”, as not all algorithms are based on “machine learning” in the traditional sense. We consider all algorithms/pipelines “optimizable” if they have parameters and models that can be adapted and optimized using an algorithm specific optimization method. Algorithms that can only be optimized by brute force (e.g. via GridSearch) are explicitly excluded from this group. For more information about the conceptional idea behind this, see the guide on algorithm evaluation.

In this example we will implement an optimizable pipeline around the OptimizableQrsDetector we developed in Algorithms - A real world example: QRS-Detection. As optimization might depend on the dataset and pre-processing, we need to write a wrapper around the self_optimize method of the OptimizableQrsDetector on a pipeline level. However, in general this should be really straight forward, as most of the complexity is already implemented on algorithm level.

This example shows how such a pipeline should be implemented and how it can be optimized using Optimize.

The Pipeline#

Our pipeline will implement all the logic on how our algorithms are applied to the data and how algorithms should be optimized based on train data.

An optimizable pipeline usually needs the following things:

  1. It needs to be a subclass of OptimizablePipeline.

  2. It needs to have a run method that runs all the algorithmic steps and stores the results as class attributes. The run method should expect only a single data point (in our case a single recording of one sensor) as input.

  3. It needs to have an self_optimize method, that performs a data-driven optimization of one or more input parameters. This method is expected to return self and is only allowed to modify parameters marked as OptimizableParameter using the class-level typehints (more below)

  4. A init that defines all parameters that should be adjustable. Note, that the names in the function signature of the init method, must match the corresponding attribute names (e.g. max_cost -> self.max_cost). If you want to adjust multiple parameters that all belong to the same algorithm (and your algorithm is implemented as a subclass of Algorithm, it can be convenient to just pass the algorithm as a parameter. However, keep potential issues with mutable defaults in mind (more info).

  5. At least one of the input parameters must be marked as OptimizableParameter in the class-level typehints. If parameters are nested tpcp objects you can use the __ syntax to mark nested values as optimizable. Note, that you always need to mark the parameters you want to optimize in the current pipeline. Annotations in nested objects are ignored. The more precise you are with these annotations, the more help the runtime checks in tpcp can provide.

  6. (Optionally) Mark parameters as PureParameter using the type annotations. This can be used by GridSearchCV to apply some performance optimizations. However, be careful with that! In our case, there are no PureParameters, as all (nested) input parameters change the output of the self_optimize method.

import pandas as pd

from examples.algorithms.algorithms_qrs_detection_final import OptimizableQrsDetector
from examples.datasets.datasets_final_ecg import ECGExampleData
from tpcp import OptimizableParameter, OptimizablePipeline, Parameter, cf, make_optimize_safe

class MyPipeline(OptimizablePipeline[ECGExampleData]):
    algorithm: Parameter[OptimizableQrsDetector]
    algorithm__min_r_peak_height_over_baseline: OptimizableParameter[float]

    r_peak_positions_: pd.Series

    def __init__(self, algorithm: OptimizableQrsDetector = cf(OptimizableQrsDetector())):
        self.algorithm = algorithm

    def self_optimize(self, dataset: ECGExampleData, **kwargs):
        ecg_data = [d.data["ecg"] for d in dataset]
        r_peaks = [d.r_peak_positions_["r_peak_position"] for d in dataset]
        # Note: We need to clone the algorithm instance, to make sure we don't leak any data between runs.
        algo = self.algorithm.clone()
        self.algorithm = algo.self_optimize(ecg_data, r_peaks, dataset.sampling_rate_hz)
        return self

    def run(self, datapoint: ECGExampleData):
        # Note: We need to clone the algorithm instance, to make sure we don't leak any data between runs.
        algo = self.algorithm.clone()
        algo.detect(datapoint.data["ecg"], datapoint.sampling_rate_hz)

        self.r_peak_positions_ = algo.r_peak_positions_
        return self

pipe = MyPipeline()


To see the effect of the optimization, we will compare the output of the optimized pipeline with the output of the default pipeline. As it is not the goal of this example to perform any form of actual evaluation of a model, we will just compare the number of identified R-peaks to show, that the optimization had an impact on the output.

For a fair comparison, we must use some train data to optimize the pipeline and then compare the outputs only on a separate test set.

from pathlib import Path

from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split

    HERE = Path(__file__).parent
except NameError:
    HERE = Path().resolve()
data_path = HERE.parent.parent / "example_data/ecg_mit_bih_arrhythmia/data"
example_data = ECGExampleData(data_path)

train_set, test_set = train_test_split(example_data, train_size=0.7, random_state=0)
# We only want a single dataset in the test set
test_set = test_set[0]
(train_set.group_labels, test_set.group_labels)
([ECGExampleDataGroupLabel(patient_group='group_3', participant='104'), ECGExampleDataGroupLabel(patient_group='group_3', participant='119'), ECGExampleDataGroupLabel(patient_group='group_2', participant='102'), ECGExampleDataGroupLabel(patient_group='group_2', participant='116'), ECGExampleDataGroupLabel(patient_group='group_1', participant='121'), ECGExampleDataGroupLabel(patient_group='group_1', participant='105'), ECGExampleDataGroupLabel(patient_group='group_1', participant='100'), ECGExampleDataGroupLabel(patient_group='group_3', participant='108')], [ECGExampleDataGroupLabel(patient_group='group_1', participant='114')])

The Baseline#

For our baseline, we will use the pipeline, but will not apply the optimization. This means, the pipeline will use the default threshold.

pipeline = MyPipeline()

# We use the `safe_run` wrapper instead of just run. This is always a good idea.
results = pipeline.safe_run(test_set)
print("The default `min_r_peak_height_over_baseline` is", pipeline.algorithm.min_r_peak_height_over_baseline)
print("Number of R-Peaks:", len(results.r_peak_positions_))
The default `min_r_peak_height_over_baseline` is 1.0
Number of R-Peaks: 30


To optimize the pipeline, we will not call self_optimize directly, but use the Optimize wrapper. It has the same interface as other optimization methods like GridSearch. Further, it makes some checks to catch potential implementation errors of our self_optimize method.

Note, that the optimize method will perform all optimizations on a copy of the pipeline. The means the pipeline object used as input will not be modified.

from tpcp.optimize import Optimize

# Remember we only optimize on the `train_set`.
optimized_pipe = Optimize(pipeline).optimize(train_set)
optimized_results = optimized_pipe.safe_run(test_set)
print("The optimized `min_r_peak_height_over_baseline` is", optimized_results.algorithm.min_r_peak_height_over_baseline)
print("Number of R-Peaks:", len(optimized_results.r_peak_positions_))
The optimized `min_r_peak_height_over_baseline` is 0.5816447455722318
Number of R-Peaks: 393

We can see that training has drastically modified the threshold and increased the number of R-peaks we detected. To figure out, if all the new R-peaks are actually correct, we would need to make a more extensive evaluation.

Final Notes#

In this example we only modified a threshold of the algorithm. However, the concept of optimization can be expanded to anything imaginable (e.g. templates, ML-models, NN-models).

Total running time of the script: (0 minutes 1.235 seconds)

Estimated memory usage: 28 MB

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